Paul A. Klevgard, Ph.D.
Sandia National Laboratory, Ret.

Issues in modern physics that lack satisfactory answers are numerous: wave-particle duality; indeterminacy, nonlocality and wave function collapse to name a few. This web site offers an original pdf essay arguing that if we adopt a new view of energy and give it ontological equality with mass, then many of these unresolved issues have a resolution (see below). If that is achieved then causal realism can be validated while duality and indeterminism can be confined to special cases.

The ideas in this essay grew out of the author adapting a method Einstein used between 1905 and 1925, namely comparing mass and energy on a formal (abstract) basis. If you are interested, details of his method are spelled out  here.

Below is a very brief summary of main ideas in this essay. If they pique your interest there is a link to download the full essay.

Thanks for visiting. Modern physics is an exciting puzzle; I hope you have fun exploring it. Niels Bohr argued that quantum paradoxes (electron as both wave and particle) are beyond our ken; more recent anti-realists have expanded upon this to make all of physical reality suspect. Ignore them; you or someone after you will figure out a realist solution. Expert opinions in one generation don't look that good several generations later....

The author has a Ph.D. from Northwestern University, taught for years at the university level and was a staff member at Sandia National Laboratories. He also worked in Silicon Valley for 10 years in computer science.

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Current physics is unbalanced. Its focus is almost entirely upon the realm of existence, namely existing particles and existing fields (i.e., particle [collider] physics and Quantum Field Theory). My paper grants full equality to the realm of occurrence. It looks at physics from a broader definition of ontology: that which exists and that which occurs. I contend that kinetic energy (KE) is currently misinterpreted.

From nineteenth-century physicists we have inherited a simplistic concept of the energy of matter-in-motion as a mere quantity, E = ½ mv2. The Quantum Revolution gave us a second definition of kinetic energy (KE), E = hf. Hence we have two quantitative expressions of energy but mass for us is singular, both quantitatively and ontologically. This doesn't make sense in light of the equality/convertibility of mass and energy (E = mc2. Restricting energy to its quantitative effects upon mass is to deny energy's equality and its presence in a dimension (time).

  • Occurrence must be the ontological equal of existence. Both must have a presence in a dimension.
  • Mass is quantized in space; KE is quantized in time.[1]
  • Mass & energy store each other; mass stores potential energy and KE stores (relativistic) mass.
  • What both store can be released.
  • Inertial mass is stationary in space; [2] pure KE (the photon [3]) is stationary in time.
  • Existing mass progresses (advances) in time; occurring KE (the photon) progresses in space.

For these and other reasons I argue that KE constitutes an occurring entity residing in time just as mass (matter) constitutes an existing entity residing in space. The oscillatory KE entity in time is created when work is done.

Work done upon rest mass creates the KE entity in time that we can neither probe nor see directly but we can detect its effects as de Broglie radiation. Such work creates a "mixed" entity: the KE entity in time is joined (orthogonally) to the rest mass entity in space.

In contrast, work done upon a charge creates massless EM radiation; this (photon) radiation constitutes a "pure" occurring entity. Note: pure entities do not combine KE with rest mass. If no work is done upon a rest mass the latter remains a "pure" existing entity.

Three Entities: 1) the photon occurs as pure entity; 2) the space-stationary rest mass exists as pure entity; 3) matter-in-motion is a mixed entity: that is, existing rest mass is joined (via work done) with occurring KE entity. When rest mass is very small the conjoined KE entity can express its oscillation/wave character; voilà, dualism…

A Partial List of Benefits from Recognizing KE as an Entity in Time:
  • Ontological equality: an entity for mass/space; an entity for energy/time.

  • Energy is now singular as is mass: energies E = hf and E = ½ mv² now have a single (entity) basis.

  • Uncertainty & Complementarity: a mixed entity (matter-in-motion) of space-residing rest mass joined to time-residing KE does not allow the simultaneously measure of position and momentum. You must measure the two joined entities separately as their joining is orthogonal (space/existence vs. time/occurrence).

  • Dualism of the electron: there is not one electron entity with two different forms (wave, particle); that is a contradiction (paradox). There are actually two joined entities with different forms; this bypasses the contradiction. [hint: and the wave function describes only one!]

  • Probability: entities store their opposite: thermal energy is stored by rest mass; relativistic mass is stored by KE. This gives entities a potential/stored identity which is probabilistic for release on either space paths (that the photon follows) or on time paths (that a rest mass follows).

  • Entanglement: Space-adjacent rest mass entities (e.g., atoms) will bond together (e.g., a sodium atoms bonds to a chlorine atom). Time-adjacent (same-source) KE entities (photons) will also bond together. Entanglement is the most direct proof we have that KE is an entity residing in time. KE as mere quantity cannot explain entanglement.

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[1] KE must oscillate (occur); hence it produces radiation. EM radiation and de Broglie radiation have quantized oscillation cycles in time.
[2] Stationary for a local observer.
[3] There are differences between the photon's EM cycles and what the photon transmits which is KE. The essence of the photon is KE; photon reception yields KE; not an electric charge nor a magnetic dipole.